Choosing Between VM and Docker-based Environments#

Semaphore supports two types of environments for running jobs. A Virtual Machine-based environment and a Docker container-based environment.

Both environment types have their respective advantages and disadvantages. Use the following guides to choose the best environment type for your project.

Sometimes the choice between Virtual Machines and Docker containers is not clear. Commonly asked questions include:

Virtual Machine-based environments#

Semaphore's virtual machines are maintained by our engineers. Every two weeks, a new release of the platform is released, bundled with the latest software packages.

To use a virtual machine-based environment for your jobs, use the following type of agent definition in your pipeline YAML file.

Linux-based virtual machines

    type: e1-standard-2
    os_image: ubuntu2004

Mac-based virtual machines

    type: a1-standard-4
    os_image: macos-xcode14

We also have helpful documentation about Machine Types and the Ubuntu 20.04, Mac OS XCode 14, and Mac OS XCode 15 virtual machines images. Have a look!

Docker-based environments#

A Docker-based environment is a composable environment that allows the use of one or more Docker containers to construct your test environment on Semaphore.

The recommended way of using Docker images is to build and maintain a custom-built image with only the software that is necessary for your project.

Alternatively, if you are just starting out with Docker-based environments, you can use one of Semaphore's convenience images.

To use a container-based environment, define at least one container in your agent definition in your pipeline YAML file.

    type: e1-standard-2

    - name: main
      image: ''

    - name: db
      image: ''
        - name: POSTGRES_PASSWORD
          value: keyboard-cat

    - name: cache
      image: ''

Read more about docker-based environments.

Semaphore convenience images redirection

Due to the introduction of Docker Hub rate limits, if you are using a Docker-based CI/CD environment in combination with convenience images, Semaphore will automatically redirect any pulls from the semaphoreci Docker Hub repository to the Semaphore Container Registry.

When should you use Virtual Machines for your projects?#

  • You want to have an up-to-date testing environment with the latest software packages. The Virtual Machines are regularly updated with the latest software packages by engineers at Semaphore.

  • You are building Docker images or spinning up local Kubernetes testing clusters in CI/CD jobs. When working with Docker or Kubernetes directly, you usually need full control over sockets, network-devices, and subnets. Access to these is provided in VMs, but not in containers.

  • You are running or testing nested Virtual Machines. In these situations, you need full control over the operating system, which only virtual machines provide.

When should you use Docker-based environments?#

  • You want to have full control over the software installed in your test environment. Rolling software updates offered in the VMs are a great way to keep your test environment up-to-date, but they can also introduce unwanted issues into your test suite when a new release is rolled out. If you build and maintain your own Docker images, you gain full control over the release cycle of your testing environment.

  • You want to have the same testing environment on Semaphore as in your local development environment. A docker image is a perfect choice in this case. With Docker images, you can guarantee the same software stack across development and build environments.

  • You need custom software that is not available in the VM images. Semaphore's Virtual Machines are packed with a wide variety of languages and tools, but they don't have everything. In the virtual machines, you can use apt-get to install what you need, but a more efficient way is to build a docker image that pre-installs everything that is necessary for your tests.

Can I use Docker images in Virtual Machines?#

Yes. Running Docker images in Virtual Machines is one of the most common ways to start background services necessary for your jobs.

Instead of defining them in the container section in the agent, use the prologue commands to spin up your Docker images.

For example, to start RabbitMQ in a Virtual Machine, use the following snippet:

  - name: Tests
          - docker run -d --hostname my-rabbit --name rabbit -p 15672:15672 -p 5672:5672 rabbitmq:3-management
          - sleep 5 # give some time for Rabbit to start up

        - name: Rabbit Test
            - make rabbit.based.tests

Can I build Docker-in-Docker?#

It is possible to build Docker images in container-based environments (Docker socket is mounted and available), but it is not the recommended way to build Docker images on Semaphore.

Docker-in-Docker has a set of issues that you need to be aware of before choosing this approach.

Jérôme Petazzoni — the author of the feature that made it possible for Docker to run inside a Docker container — wrote a blog post about why you shouldn't do it. The use case he describes matches the use case of a CI Docker container that needs to run jobs inside other Docker containers.

A lot has changed since 2015 in the Docker world. However, some issues are still present.

We recommend using Virtual Machines for building Docker images.