This document describes additional open source command line tools that are provided by Semaphore and available in all VMs.
cache tool helps optimize CI/CD runtime by reusing files that your
project depends on but are not part of version control. You should typically
use caching to:
- Reuse your project's dependencies, so that Semaphore fetches and installs them only when the dependency list changes.
- Propagate a file from one block to the next.
Cache is created on a per project basis and available in every pipeline job. All cache keys are scoped per project. Total cache size is 9.6GB.
cache tool uses key-path pairs for managing cached archives. An archive
can be a single file or a directory.
cache supports the following options:
cache store key path#
cache store our-gems vendor/bundle cache store gems-$SEMAPHORE_GIT_BRANCH vendor/bundle cache store gems-$SEMAPHORE_GIT_BRANCH-revision-$(checksum Gemfile.lock) vendor/bundle
cache store command archives a file or directory specified by
associates it with a given
cache store uses
tar, it automatically removes any leading
/ from the
Any further changes of
path after the store command completes will not
be automatically propagated to cache. The command always passes, i.e. exits
with return code 0.
In case of insufficient disk space,
cache store frees disk space by deleting
the oldest keys.
cache restore key[,second-key,...]#
cache restore our-gems cache restore gems-$SEMAPHORE_GIT_BRANCH cache restore gems-$SEMAPHORE_GIT_BRANCH-revision-$(checksum Gemfile.lock),gems-master
Restores an archive which partially matches any given
In case of a cache hit, archive is retrieved and available at its original
path in the job environment.
Each archive is restored in the current path from where the function is called.
In case of cache miss, the comma-separated fallback takes over and command looks up the next key. If no archives are restored command exits with 0.
cache has_key key#
cache has_key our-gems cache has_key gems-$SEMAPHORE_GIT_BRANCH cache has_key gems-$SEMAPHORE_GIT_BRANCH-revision-$(checksum Gemfile.lock)
Checks if an archive with provided key exists in cache. Command passes if key is found in the cache, otherwise it fails.
Lists all cache archives for the project.
cache delete key#
cache delete our-gems cache delete gems-$SEMAPHORE_GIT_BRANCH cache delete gems-$SEMAPHORE_GIT_BRANCH-revision-$(checksum Gemfile.lock)
Removes an archive with given key if it is found in cache. The command always passes.
Removes all cached archives for the project. The command always passes.
Note that in all commands of
cache has_key command can fail
(exit with non-zero status).
cache tool depends on the following environment variables
which are automatically set in every job environment:
SEMAPHORE_CACHE_URL: stores the IP address and the port number of the cache server (
SEMAPHORE_CACHE_USERNAME: stores the username that will be used for connecting to the cache server (
SEMAPHORE_CACHE_PRIVATE_KEY_PATH: stores the path to the SSH key that will be used for connecting to the cache server (
tar to archive the specified directory or file.
The GitHub repository used in a Semaphore project is not automatically cloned for reasons of efficiency.
libcheckout script includes the implementation of a single function
checkout() that is used for making available the entire GitHub
repository of the running Semaphore project to the VM used for executing a
job of the pipeline. The
checkout() function is called as
checkout from the
By default, the implementation of the
checkout command uses shallow clone
during the clone operation.
With shallow clone, you get all the files in your repository and a small number of recent revisions. This makes the checkout process faster comparing to downloading the entire history of the repository.
Note that some deployment scenarios, like Heroku, require presence of the full Git history.
If you'd like to do a full clone, execute
checkout with the
flag, or use the following code snippet:
checkout git fetch --unshallow git config remote.origin.fetch '+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*' git fetch --all
checkout() function of the
libcheckout script depends on the following
three Semaphore environment variables:
SEMAPHORE_GIT_URL: This environment variable holds the URL of the GitHub repository that is used in the Semaphore project (
SEMAPHORE_GIT_DIR: This environment variable holds the UNIX path where the GitHub repository will be placed on the VM (
SEMAPHORE_GIT_SHA: This environment variable holds the SHA key for the HEAD reference that is used when executing
git reset -q --hard.
All these environment variables are automatically defined by Semaphore.
checkout command supports the
--use-cache flag. The purpose of that
flag is to tell
checkout to get the contents of the GitHub repository from
the Semaphore Cache server instead of the GitHub servers because it is faster.
If there is no cache entry for the active GitHub repository, the functionality
--use-cache flag will create it.
When using the
checkout supports the following
SEMAPHORE_GIT_CACHE_AGE: This environment variable specifies how often the cache for that GitHub repository will get updated. Its value is always in seconds and by default it is
259200, which is 3 days. The value that you are going to choose depends on your project and how ofter it gets updated.
SEMAPHORE_GIT_CACHE_KEEP: Each time there is an update to the cache, the key in the Cache server is also being updated. Before updating the key, the previous key that is related to the current project is deleted. This environment variable tells Semaphore Cache server to keep a history. The default value of
Note: When used with the
checkout does not use
Notice that the
checkout command automatically changes the current working
directory in the Operating System of the VM to the directory defined in the
SEMAPHORE_GIT_DIR environment variable.
The following command will tell
checkout to use the Semaphore Cache server
to get the contents of the GitHub repository instead of using GitHub server:
If you set
1 then it will keep two copies in
the Semaphore Cache server: the active one and the previous one.
If you set
SEMAPHORE_GIT_CACHE_AGE=86400, then the cache for the GitHub
repository will get updated after 1 day.
libchecksum scripts provides the
useful for tagging artifacts or generating cache keys. It takes a
single argument, a file path, and outputs an
md5 hash value.
$ checksum package.json 3dc6f33834092c93d26b71f9a35e4bb3
retry script is used for retrying a command for a given amount of times at
given time intervals – waiting for resources to become available or waiting
for network connectivity issues to be resolved is the main reason for using
retry bash script supports two command line parameters:
--times: this is used for defining the number of retries before giving up. The default value is 3.
--sleep: this is used for defining the time interval between retries The default value is 0.
retry bash script only depends on the
$ retry lsa -l /usr/bin/retry: line 46: lsa: command not found [1/3] Execution Failed with exit status 127. Retrying. /usr/bin/retry: line 46: lsa: command not found [2/3] Execution Failed with exit status 127. Retrying. /usr/bin/retry: line 46: lsa: command not found [3/3] Execution Failed with exit status 127. No more retries.
In the previous example the
retry command will never be successful because
lsa command does not exist.
$ retry.sh -t 5 -s 10 lsa -l ./retry.sh: line 46: lsa: command not found [1/5] Execution Failed with exit status 127. Retrying. ./retry.sh: line 46: lsa: command not found [2/5] Execution Failed with exit status 127. Retrying. ./retry.sh: line 46: lsa: command not found [3/5] Execution Failed with exit status 127. Retrying. total 8 -rwxr-xr-x 1 mtsouk staff 1550 Aug 30 10:58 retry.sh
In the previous example, the
retry script succeeded after three failed tries.